Great Pyramids Giza Valley

Egyptian True Pyramid Structures & Concepts

"Gives Life and Everlasting Stability". The principal idea behind the Pyramids construction most likely is summarized in this epitaph placed after the pharaoh's name. Because a pyramid beside being the pharaoh's burial chamber, was also thought as the afterlife pathway to reach, an expected magnificent everlasting-life somewhere in the Sky or heaven. A reward from their God-living Pharaoh, in gratitude to those involved in making the greatness of the kingdom, wealth and assembly of its memorial monuments.

 

 

Table of Content

01: Mastabas: Pyramid's Structural foundation.

02: Pyramidon: Pyramid's shape source.

03: Pharaoh's Seneferu: True Pyramid quest.

04: The Great Pyramid's Geometric concepts.

05: Pharaoh's Khafra Geometrical allegory.

06: Great Pyramid' multiple Sky' worlds Concept.

07: Lotus and Animal' life renewal symbolism.

08: The Great Pyramid' Upper Chambers
        completed the 3 Sun' Circles symbology.

 

 

Giza Valley Mastaba

To make a Pyramid is necessary to superimpose mastabas structures in a digressive arrangement one on top of the other until accomplishing the desired height.

Giza Mastabas

Mastaba Concepts and Structures subject.

Step pyramid Saqqarad

The first World's tallest massive building ever made in Egypt at Sakkara's burial complex. Using stone blocks structure, during the 27th century B.C. By Pharaoh Zoser, the first rule of the third dynasty.

To make a Tue-Pyramid structure is necessary to add some Trapezoidal terraces (Mastaba like structures) superimposed one on top of the other, but reducing in size the additional ones. By using this method, Ancient Egyptians did manage to make massive stone buildings, known today as Pyramids.

The first building ever built in the world achieved by using this technique of stone blocks terraces placed in the digressive arrangement in Sakkara-Egypt. Hence as it looks like a Steps-building, is the reason, why this structure today, is known by the name of Step-Pyramid.

Giza Valley pyramids

Khufu (Kheops,name in Greek ) and Khafra (Kheops) Pyramids at Giza Valley

Although, even that Pyramids today missing their external coverture or casing, they are much impressive. Nonetheless, their present appearances are just a reminder of what they were. In ancient times, the Giza pyramids were covered with a casing material that as it shined with the Sun rays gave the pyramids a golden glow in the morning and white at midday and likely red in the afternoon at sunset, an effect that provided a breathtaking view even from very far away. Thus, transmitting an extraordinary higher sense of technological advancement, unmatched later, only millenniums apart.

A fact that endowed the Pharaoh with a supernatural force, capable of make mountains of such nature. Inclining people at that time to take as true-fact the idea that the Pharaoh was the living solar God on Earth. Therefore, Ancient Egyptian besides assuming that a True Pyramids were tombs or mausoleums, also understood it to be his living god's house or Temple, and added multiple other corresponding significant symbolic attributes, like the tabernacle, false door, niche or arch also had.
Actually, most probably pyramids were taken as the highest hub to interconnect or maintain their spiritually-links with this World where we live, together with the Sky's Afterlife World dwelling place, by using the Divine Pharaoh and his powerhouse to be able to integrate with the Gods or Godly elements afterward.
Thus, good reason to built and bury the Pharaoh in such monumental building of imaginary supernatural competencies, to maintain a wishful spiritual contact or be part of him in the afterlife. Because, at that time was believed that only the Pharaoh had rights to live in eternally in heaven; however, he could choose from his closest associates, who could deserve to be integrated with his own spirit.

The True-pyramid, besides showing the development of improved building techniques also shows fundamental concept difference; because, since a Step Pyramid, signified stages to climb to certain imaginary Worlds in the night Sky or Moon domain. Nonetheless, since a True-pyramid has hidden steps that now can be seen with the loss of the casing. It's smooth finishing was likely conceived focusing, on a Sun's Rays idea; which, taken as the needed means for their spirits to reach the Sun's glorious, everlasting Kingdom, their way to reach Heaven in the daylight Sky sphere.

True Pyramid structure

The straight-red-lines show the Casing or filling used to smoother structural Steps to reach the True Pyramidal form.

However, the Technique, to fashion a True-pyramid from a Step-pyramid is done by inserting filling material (casing) to flatten the steps. Thus, by adding the same dimension stones, cut at an angle (Triangular side view) rather than perpendicular (Blocks) and placing them in-between the dented steps surfaces, accomplishing the straight faces of a pyramid side look.

Furthermore, taking into account that pyramids evolved from mastabas, the pre-dynastic Egyptian Pharaoh's tombs, and were built for the same purposes, is obvious that their smooth walls probably played a significant role in their afterlife Sky concepts, as seen in pylons, temple sand altars sides. Nonetheless, both pyramid styles were complete with the same spiritual purpose idea and thought to possess an imagined sky pathway, a must, to be able to obtain their high position in the pertinent expected afterlife paradise.

Kheops casing stone filling

Khufu (Kheops) pyramid's external casing (filling) stone.

The Great Pyramid presents just a few original casing stones that once entirely covered the four sides of this monumental building.
Now, only a limited number of this special-shaped stones can be found at the base of the of the Giza valley pyramids.
The stone casing that still remains from the ancient structural design can be appreciated only at the base of the Khufu (Kheops) and Menkaure (Micerino) Pyramids, as well at the top of Khafra (Khefren) pyramid. In the other pyramids, the Casing is nearly or entirely gone as they were probably used for other needs and purposes.

Even so that from certain distance all the pyramids at Giza Valley look remarkably similar, their builders evidently didn't use the same techniques, materials and styles to build these monuments. Taking a close look at these pyramids can be seen to come out numerous differences.

Miserino or Menkaure Casing stones

Pharaoh Menkaure's (Micerino) pyramid Casing stones on the place at the Pyramid base.

Some of this details can be appreciated in Pharaoh Menkaure (Micerino) pyramid, whose pyramid base, still shows some noticeable amount of casing stones that at its time covered the entire pyramid superficies. There is definitely observable the distinct characteristic, size, form, color and finishing that these blocks have when compared to the Great Pyramid's casting stones.

Their size is smaller, the color is reddish and has decorative additions not seen in the smooth surface show in the other pyramids. Even the size of the steps has a different look, which clearly indicate that the artists who carved the stones in this pyramid, undoubtedly, did use diverse methods.

A fact that states that this pyramid must have been built by a different group or guild; who had their own way to cut and finish this kind of the stonework. Which points out that they either came from another region or time did make changes in concepts and techniques, since a few generations have passed by from the beginning to this last pyramid in the Giza Valley complex.

Abusir Pyramids

Abusir, 5th dynasty True-pyramids.

After Giza, during the Fifth and later dynasties, pyramids builders changed the angle slope padding because the construction segments (mastaba-like) were made of different proportions, which were similar to the Step Pyramid. Hence, as the height of each terrace did significantly increasing in size, was not possible to make the casing made out only one in one piece stone.

Therefore, they were in need of filling the dents between superimposed mastabas using a compound material made of smaller stones, to fill the desired steps gap in the side walls.

Consequently, as the years time has passed, the filling material slipped down to the ground, exposing the steps structure to be seen like a step-pyramid. The reason why, for a long time the pyramids of the Fifth Dynasty at Abusir (north of Sakkara area) that were thought to be step-pyramids, after field studies of the building materials have proven otherwise that these pyramids originally were also True Pyramids.

 

 

Pyramidon: Pyramid's shape source.

Pyramidon

As it can be seen here, when comparing a Pyramidon, even with the Bend Pyramid that has humpback sides, they look quite the same.

If Mastabas gave Pyramids their structural foundation, Pyramidons were the distinctive Pyramid's shape source. Nonetheless, concerning their beliefs and concepts, together represented the greatest motivation ever, during the rise of the Empire, from 3100 B.C. till the culmination of the Golden Age during the Old Egyptian Kingdom.
Thus, generating the idea of a pathway to reach their fondest desires in a wishful rewarded afterlife. Which made them built tremendous monumental stone blocks buildings known as Pyramids, during the fourth dynasty about the 27th century B.C. Never even equaled several millennia later in the entire world.

Before going any further into the subject of pyramids. In particular, the "True Pyramid," the ones with smooth sides, like the Giza Pyramids. It's necessary to consider the Pyramidon, a Sun path tracking-instrument, in essence, a Sun-clock whose utility form bred the precursor idea to build the "True Pyramid."
On facts that Pyramidons were in use countless years and even millenniums before pyramids as a tool, however, due to his functional factors in the Sun's sky mechanics dealings and the need to hide its potentiality, and usefulness from others.

From this time, they were endowed of mysticism, like the power to communicate with the Shy or even become part of the gods through their magic. Hence, highlighting its shape to hide its practical values, were gifted with numerous imaginary powers, an entire fascination atmosphere that pyramids also inherited later.

 Red Pyramid Pyramidon Dashur

The Pyramidon actually is a sun clock, the essential means to make a calendar.

In other words, the Pyramidon was the Pharaoh's Sun-clock. Because, the Pyramidon as it cast the shade demarking the Sun's orbit path in the Sky during its daily and yearly movements. Since, the sun shade that projects from the Pyramidon to the surrounding square, permits the Sun's trajectory tracking path.
Hence, with such instrument Ancient Egyptians obtained sufficient material, which provided the information necessary, to make a Calendar; thus, precise time and calculate organizational and festival events.

Being a calendar the crucial resource for planning everybody tasks for the national organization, which was the principal factors that made Egypt one of the greatest nation at that Time. For such, the Pyramidon was one of the most significant and valuable tools in what they have to relay at that period of time.

 Red Pyramid entrance Pyramidon

This same Pyramidon shown before, as it can be seen is placed on the Eastern side temple's entrance of the Red Pyramid, who's casing or filling stone, still can be seen.

The Pyramidon shown here was placed in a separate square enclosure, on the Eastern front side of the Red Pyramid. Thus its placement clearly indicates that besides performing its corresponding functional role, it also had a significant symbolic meaning and vital ceremonial value.

The Red Pyramid was the first ever built True-Pyramid in Dashur by Pharaoh Snefru around 2,600 B.C. He was he the first ruler of the Fourth Egyptian Dynasty, father of Pharaoh Khufu or Kheops builder of the Great Pyramid at Giza Valley. A dynasty, which is known for its marked tendency towards Sun worshiping.

Giza Pyramidon

The presence of Pyramidons at Giza Valley side by side of the Great Pyramids burial complex shows that this item was one of the most significant artifacts in their daily affairs and burial concepts, as well.

At Giza Valley compound, the Pyramidons were built, aligned on the Eastern side of the Pyramids emplaced where an altar should be. Exactly where the sun rose, a fact which indicates that at this point in time, during the Old Egyptian Empire Period, the Pyramidon still continued to be the most reliable instrument for their Sun tracking needs.

However, in later times, is possible that due to the discovery of more advanced and precise methods that transformed their symbolic concepts and thereby, also did influenced their burial ideas. Which, explains the reason why Pyramids were abandoned by later generations.

Pyramidon concept

As geometrical shapes, drawn from above, Pyramidons, Obelisks, and Tue-Pyramids, all are delineated with the same form.

Drawing from a top point of view a Pyramidon, Pyramid, or an Obelisk, they do not show a perceptible difference. Matter of fact they all look and are basically the same. For such, being pyramidons and obelisks Sun clocks, it is understandable that since both had similar practical functions also should had the same or very similar symbolic concepts.

Although is good to keep in mind that pyramidons and obelisks are just parts of a Temple arrangement. However, a Pyramid besides being a Tomb, at the same time, it is also an entire Temple, as a whole.
Incidentally, something similar to what ancient Egyptians said or believed concerning Goddess Hathor. She was God's Heru or Horus wife, but at the same time was his mother.

Giza Khefren or khafra Pyramid

From above ground view can be seen that the Pyramid and Pyramidon shade functions, just the same as a time indicator.

The Khafra or Khefren Pyramid at Giza Valley clearly displays the square-shaped enclosure that surrounds the Pyramid, same as the Red Pyramid entrance Pyramidon, surrounding square area at Dashur. Which evidently show that it was also used to indicate the Time with the shade made by the Sun motion effect.

However, from ground level, because pyramids lack a shaft like the pyramidons do, makes hard to see the shade; nonetheless, it is a feature that clearly show their similar functions. Therefore, a concrete and definite idea to understand the concept that did induce Ancient Egyptians to build the True Pyramid.

Luxor Temple Obelisks

Luxor Temple entrance, with the typical, two Osiris-Pharaoh statues sitting on a throne side by side of two Obelisk, setup. Although, since one of the obelisks is missing, for such, to transmit the idea of how it was, this obelisk, has been duplicated and placed in the corresponding lieu of the other.

In later times, during the New Empire period, at the entrance of the temples, there were placed two statues of the same Pharaoh seating on a throne. Representing the expected Pharaoh's spirit unification into God Osiris celestial body in the afterlife, a god taken to be as the Sun God during the night stage.

On the other hand, since at the Luxor Temple in Karnack, can be also appreciated that there are two Obelisks in front of the Pharaoh's throne statues, as well. And being evidence that the Obelisks are dedicated to the Pharaoh, as well. Because, the pharaoh's name also appears in the obelisks, associated with other Gods. For such, the obelisk is also representing another spiritual merger, but this time, apparently as a Daylight, Sun deity.

sphinx

The Sphinx {Cairo Museum) is a Pharaoh headed Lion, apparently representing the Pharaoh, in particular, Sky stage.

Same concept, like the Sphinx idea, presenting an imaginary being as a Pharaohs-headed lion. Hence, symbolizing again a Pharaoh's spirit integration with the Sun God; however, in Lion's form stating that such allegory corresponds to the Sunlight Sphere, the Sun's realm during the Day.

Consequently, the placing of mummified individuals in a Niche (False-door) in the Pyramid, Sphinx, Temple or Mastaba nearby, depending on his Family, Social or Religious links to the Pharaoh. Where done with the purpose to perform a ceremony in which the spirit of the deceased will be incorporated into the Pharaoh's spirit.
In later times, as this event was extended to other more social circles. People flocked to Abydos with their departed family members, to just perform a ritualistic allegory of that kind in honor of God Osiris, a God, who originally was a pharaoh but eventually transformed into the underworld deity. And later return their departed loved ones to their current place to complete the actual burial.

Therefore, if the Mastaba is the basic-block of ancient Egyptian architecture, the Pyramidon significantly influenced pyramids and obelisks based on the beliefs of their possible use to communicate with their Pharaoh as a Sun Deity.
Matter of fact, since, at that time only the Pharaoh was able to integrate with the Gods in the Sky. For the reason that an Obelisk looks nearly like a Pyramid but without shaft it also thought to be a mean to integrate their spirit with their Pharaohs eternal being. Like, many Niches and false doors, indicate, at the time that the Great Pyramid was built. The chosen ones, either priest or nobles, could integrate their names with the Pharaoh name. And that way they also could enter into the Sky eternal waters to acquire the promised pleasures in the afterlife.

Bottom line: Pyramidons, Pyramids, and Obelisks one in all symbolized the compound spirit of the Pharaoh and Ra or any deity related to the Day, in the Sunlight Sky Sphere. Thus, the reason why the Pharaohs Temple Tomb during the Old Egyptian Empire took that particular form.

 

 

Pharaoh's Seneferu: True Pyramid quest.

Pharaoh's Seneferu Names

Pharaoh's Seneferu Names: Cairo Museum.

Pharaoh Seneferu was the successor of Pharaoh Huni, last Pharaoh of the Third Dynasty and so Seneferu became the First Pharaoh of the well-known Fourth Dynasty (2575-2551 BC) builders of the Great-Pyramid at Giza Valley. Although that the word Dynasty means "Family" and Pharaoh Seneferu was the son of Pharaoh Huni.
Why? There is a Dynasty change when both pharaohs belong to the same family. Ancient Egyptian did use Dynasties classifications. Dynasty is a modern vocabulary, which, is used to study the sovereigns families sequences. In this case, is used to simplify and better understand the Egyptian Pharaohs sequence as rulers.

Most of the families that lived in the same River course, in a form-or-other due to the sparse world population of those times most, were related or had some degree of relationship, for such, the distinction is made now taking into account other specific details to make simpler the understanding of their historical changes.

Therefore, although that they were Father and Son, but for the reason that, Seneferu was not born from Huni's first wife. Matter of fact, for such motive, Seneferu had to marry his half-sister. Because, she was a direct descendant from the Royal Wife and that way he could obtain the full rights to the throne-line that proportioned Seneferu the right to be chosen as Pharaoh.

However, the goals to maintain the nation's path were the same or similar. Given that when Seneferu ascended to the Throne, did continue his father's wishes build, a type of pyramid, with a smooth slope, today known as the True-Pyramid. Whose construction, had already been started at Meidum on accounts that Prince Seneferu's mother came from a prominent family-clan in this region. Whose influence apparently helped this ruler realize his idea.
Also a fact, which shows Pharaoh Huni's preference for Seneferu's mother and the motives that led this noble man to the accession to the throne.

Meidum Pyramid

Meidum Pyramid: Pharaoh's Seneferu first True pyramid attempt.

Consequently, being this an excellent initiative project and having the family links and resources on hand, Pharaoh Seneferu took advantage of those favorable factors, which gave him sufficient motivation and determination to proceeded. Hence, to continue this pyramid project, into a full construction development, even so that Meidum is relatively distant from Sakkara.
The burial grounds Memphis, Egypt's capital city during the Old Empire period. An act, which most likely indicates the beginning of pharaohs believes. Distancing from the Memphis religious center, shown later, by Seneferu's descendants and successors who moved their tombs and temples to Giza Valley And for such they built their pyramids closer to An or Heliopolis, the most prominent Sun worshiping center of Ancient Egypt.

Nonetheless, the changes in burial location probably are also one of the reasons to split the Fourth from the Third Dynasty, since the pharaohs of the Third Dynasty had Sakkara as their burial site. On the other hand, all the Pharaohs of the Fourth Dynasty chose to be buried outside of Sakkara, which means that they had differences concerning their religious concepts, a strong motive for a Dynastic change.

By calculating what is remaining of this Pyramid, if been finished, most likely had reached a building height close to 300 feet (90 meters) high, bigger that the third pyramid at Giza Valley even so that the entire building was never completed.
Although, because, the construction of the Meidum Pyramid project had to be abandoned and never finished more than one interrogation. Was this Pyramid, intended as a tribute to his father, Pharaoh Huni? Or was it meant to be for Pharaoh Seneferu himself? Nonetheless, for this reason, and because this pyramid was unfinished, today known as the "Failed True Pyramid," outstanding its irremediable structural problems.

What happened? On reasons that there is a substantial amount of material around this pyramid, apparently shows that there was, some sort of structural calculations error, since the casing or filling did fell down for an unknown reason, made the project came to an abrupt halt. Which also did implied the loss of an of a great number of coworkers who were building that fatidic Pyramid.
Thus. Without hope to make another pyramid in this area or continue doing any repair work, Since, it was entirely abandoned shows that the whole concept did upset entire region.

How it happened is hard to imagine, most likely it was a miscalculation, but also factors should be taken into account, as an earthquake of enormous magnitude and other natural related reasons. Anyhow, it was something transcendental that forced the Pharaoh to put aside Meidum and pause this long for construction venture.

However, this massive adverse event did not diminish pharaoh Seneferu's willingness to continue its way, to achieve the great desired that his father had already started. Nonetheless, Pharaoh Seneferu was required to change the location, to built new pyramid. Thus he moved, from Meidum to Dashur to proceed with the enormous project. There he sighted a place to make his second pyramid.

He chose Dashur an area close to Memphis, the Egyptian capital city at the Time, as well it is near the famous Sakkara complex. A move that was undoubtedly the most appropriate, since this area was most inclined towards gods Ptah and Osiris. Hence, the most influential religious authority in Egypt at that moment, a Religious Center; whose teachings were base on the particular issue of the afterworld, the Land of the Dead, and Pharaoh's Seneferu project was going to be a magnificent example of it.

Bent Pyramis Dashur

The Bent Pyramid: Was Pharaoh Seneferu's second attempt towards the "True Pyramid".

Pharaoh Seneferu, after the Meidum Pyramid building project disappointment, rather than being frustrated, went on in progress setting a new project in place. At that point, a suitable location was chosen, south of Sakkara in the Dashur area, to restart building another Pyramid.

This new project started with a structural elevation angle of about 54 degrees, with the idea to achieve a certain height. But as imponderables are always present in any project, at mid-construction they ran again into another technical problem.
Because the Pyramid started to break due to an error in calculating the construction material resistance; consequently, the Architect in charge of the building project was bound to change the pyramid planned angle, to accomplish its development.
Hence, had to change the elevation angle from to 54 to 43 degrees, and that way, he was able to complete the monument. However, because they had to reduce its height to avoid its collapse, this pyramid has a hunched side look. Thus, was given the name, Bent Pyramid, because of its unusual shape.

In spite of all that, this pyramid has a base, 620 feet (190 meters) wide and a height of about 330 feet (100 meters). Which makes it much bigger than the Third Pyramid at Giza valley that was built by pharaoh Menkaure or Micerino, which is just over 200 feet (65 meters) high. But, even so that this Pyramid has an impressive appearance, and a satellite pyramid that was built on its southern side, most likely reserved for the royal family.

But in the end, there is no evidence that the Bent Pyramid was ever used for any burial purposes. Making possible to think that this pyramid was taken as another disappointment; as it was unable to satisfy the desired True Pyramid Shape that Pharaoh Seneferu was looking for.

Nevertheless, Pharaoh Seneferu did not give up after the "Bent Pyramid" project failed to achieve his expectations, and on account of his perfectionist attitude.
Them, Pharaoh Seneferu once again tackled the task that he had made for himself for, and finally at a short distance from where the Bent Pyramid is, he finally succeeded in building the first smooth triangular pyramid.

This monument today is known as the Red Pyramid, although its name was The Rising or Shining Pyramid due to the reddish color of the stones chosen for its structure, its current name has changed. And that's how Seneferu became in history, as the pharaoh who built the first True Pyramid with a ground base area well over 600 feet (200 meters) wide and over 300 feet 100 meters) high.

Pharaoh Seneferu, following the course of his father, who created the Cartouche, a symbol were the Pharaohs name is inscribed, created a distinctive Egyptian symbol, the greatest of all, which identifies the Egyptian Civilization, the True Pyramid.

At that particular time period, it is most likely that the Pyramid as a Symbol also represented the Sun Rebirth or the eternal life (hinted by its original name). However, since he did not make the tallest pyramid, Pharaoh Seneferu can still enjoy the most pyramids volume than any other pharaoh had ever built, and certainly that by far he is the one who did most about pyramidal structure matters in the whole Egyptian history.

Therefore, despite the fact that he is not as famed as his son Khufu or Cheops, the pharaoh who built the Great Pyramid, Seneferu has led to live the True Pyramid idea to live and without a doubt, he is The Great Pyramidal Builder of all the Egyptian Pharaoh history of all times.

Red Pyramid Dashur

The Red Pyramid, the first True pyramid ever, whose looks correspond to a Pyramidon.

Pharaoh Seneferu in spite that the Bent Pyramid project as well failed to achieve his expectations, on account of his perfectionist attitude. Then, this ruler full charged of tenacity once again tackled the task that he had made for himself,

After, taking into account the past adversities and recalculating all the necessary steps. Restated once again, a third time to built. At a short distance from where the Bent Pyramid was finished. He finally succeeded in the construction of the first Smooth Triangular pyramid.
This monument, although, that its name was The Rising or Shining Pyramid; however, due to the reddish color of the stones that was made, today is known as the Red Pyramid.

With this achievement, Seneferu became the pharaoh who built the first "True Pyramid" with a ground base area well over 600 feet (200 meters) wide and over 300 feet 100 meters) high. Pharaoh Seneferu, following the course of his father, who created the Cartouche, a symbol were the Pharaohs name is inscribed, He also created another, even a more distinctive Egyptian symbol, the greatest of all, which identifies the Egyptian Civilization, the True Pyramid.

Seneferu is the one who has led to live the True Pyramid idea. Despite the fact that he is not as famed as his son Khufu or Cheops, his son, the pharaoh who built the "Great Pyramid" at Giza, the tallest pyramid ever. However, as the volume is concerning, he out passes Kheops. Without a doubt, can be said that even that he did not build the Great Pyramid. In fact, he is The Great Pyramid Builder ever, in the entire Egyptian Pharaonic History.

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